This blessed university was founded in 1370 H - 1950 when His Majesty King Abdulaziz bin Abdulrahman Al-Saud, Founder of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, may Allah have mercy on him, entrusted His Eminence Sheikh Mohammed bin Ibrahim Al-Sheikh, Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia at the time, to inaugurate Riyadh Sharia Institute, which is the first cornerstone of the university. Consequently, a number of Sharia institutes were opened including the launching of College of Sharia Sciences in 1373 H - 1953, which known nowadays as College of Sharia, and is considered as one of the oldest Sharia colleges all around the Islamic world.

Respectively, many Sharia colleges and higher institutes were opening, which had affiliated, at the time, with the General Presidency of Colleges and Sharia Institutes, and later became Al-Imam Mohammed Bin Saud Islamic University. It has established essentially as Islamic-Sharia institution offering a variety of study programs at several educational levels, both at the level of general education as in its Sharia institutes, or undergraduate and postgraduate level. Hence, Al-Imam University has distinguished mainly by its Sharia and linguistic deliverables and other humanities, and then strived with determination to excel in other sciences. Whereas a number of colleges has established, which offer programs that serve these sciences, namely: College of Languages and Translation, College of Economics and Administrative Sciences, College of Computer and Information Sciences, College of Science, Faculty of Medicine, College of Engineering and College of Media and Communication.

Therefore, Al-Imam University has continuously expanding including higher institutes such as Higher Institute for Jurisdiction, Higher Institute for Dawa and Ihtisab, and twelve colleges and an institute for teaching Arabic Language to non-native speakers. Furthermore, an integrated city for female students that was honoured to carry the name of King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, and eighty scientific departments, and many supporting deanships, research and service centres, and academic research chairs. Additionally, a branch at Al-Ahsa Governorate, seventy Sharia institutes in thirteen regions of Saudi Arabia, and three branches abroad in Indonesia, Djibouti and Japan.